Paid Participants Studies List

The Paid Participant Studies List is graciously hosted here on the Psychology Graduate Student Council website. While most studies here are conducted in the Psychology Department, other departments recruiting participants are welcome to advertise. Anyone is welcome to sign up for the mailing list.

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Current Studies

Please check the eligibility requirements for each study. Some studies are only open to UBC students, others are open to the general public.

Last updated: Oct 6, 2017.


Visual perception of form in ASD
Researcher: Todd Kamensek (graduate student) and Dr. Ipek Oruc (PI)
Description: We are interested in how form vision in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compares to form vision in people without ASD. We need control participants to compare against our participants with ASD.
Eligibility: You must be between the ages 18 and 45. You must have normal, or corrected- to-normal (glasses/contacts) vision. You cannot have an immediate family member with ASD.
Location: Our lab is located in the ICORD Centre of Vancouver General Hospital (818 West 10th Ave).
Contact Information: Please contact todd.kamensek@alumni.ubc.ca to participate.
Reimbursement/Time: This study takes roughly 7-8 hours to complete (separated across days based on your availability) and pays $10/hour.
Study End Date: Posted Oct 6, 2017. No end date.


Brain Mechanisms Underlying Human Motion Perception
Researcher: Kim Meier (grad student) and Deborah Giaschi (PI)
Description: The purpose of this research is to learn more about how the brain processes motion information. You will play a computer game that involves watching an animation on a computer screen and reporting what you see with a gamepad.
Eligibility: Children 4-9 years old with good vision and no history of visual disorders (e.g., amblyopia, strabismus, eye trauma or disease), or developmental/neurological disorders. 
Location: Children’s Hospital, 4480 Oak Street.
Contact Information: To make an appointment, call Violet at the Ophthalmology Research Lab at 604-875-2345 x7853 or email opthalrl@cw.bc.ca.
Reimbursement/Time: Participants will receive a $10 honorarium for 1 hour of their time.
Study End Date: Revised Sept 26, 2017. No end date.


Social Integration and Well-Being
Researcher: Dr. Frances Chen and Dr. Christine Anderl
Description: In this two-part study we examine how new students develop friendships as well as how they feel during their first months at university. If you agree to participate, you will be asked to complete a 30-minute online questionnaire in the beginning of this semester and a 50-min lab visit (UBC campus) towards the end of this semester. The initial questionnaire will assess demographic information, daily activities, and emotional and physical well-being. You will also be asked to perform a series of social decision-making tasks, for which you will be randomly (and anonymously) paired with another participant, and to answer some questions about your social network. In the follow-up lab visit, we will once again assess your emotional and physical well-being, daily activities, and characteristics about your social network as well as personality traits. Finally, a research assistant will explain the study to you in detail and answer any questions that you might have (approx. 20 minutes).
Eligibility: Participants must be first-year UBC students.
Location: Online survey + UBC campus
Contact Information: Please contact anderl@psych.ubc.ca with the subject line “Social Integration and Well-Being” to sign up or ask for more information.
Reimbursement/Time: Participants will be compensated at a rate of $5 per 30 minutes of anticipated time of participation; participation in the study will take approximately 1.5 hours of active involvement throughout the semester (initial survey: 30 minutes, follow-up lab visit: 50 minutes), for a total payment of $15. In addition, 20 participants will be randomly selected and paid up to an additional $20, depending on their own decisions as well as the decisions of their randomly selected partner in one of the social decision-making tasks.
Study End Date: Posted Sept 25, 2017. Ends September 30, 2017 (T1), December 15 (T2).


Online Social Behaviour across the Menstrual Cycle
Researcher: Dr. Christine Anderl and Dr. Frances Chen
Description: In this study, you will be invited to an initial 30-minute lab session where you will be introduced to the study. If you consent to participate, you will be asked to complete an initial questionnaire and install and set up a research application on your smartphone with the help of a research assistant. Your task for the study will be to complete a daily 1-minute questionnaire for 35 days. Throughout these 35 days, the application will also record information about how long and how often you use your phone and how long and how often you use several specific applications. Finally, you will be invited back to the lab (approximately 20 minutes) so that the research assistant can explain the study to you and answer any questions that you might have.
Eligibility: You must be female, own an Android phone, not be on any form of hormonal contraception, and not be pregnant in order to participate.
Location: UBC Kenny Building room 3318
Contact Information: Please go to https://ubcarts.ca1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_5AN49CUlURQGORD to see whether you are eligible to participate and to receive further information on how to sign up for the study. Please contact smartphonestudy@psych.ubc.ca with the subject line “OSBMC Study” to ask for more information.
Reimbursement/Time: Participants will be compensated $20; participation in the study will take 1.5 to 2 hours of active involvement (20-30 min per lab session + 35 daily 1-minute surveys).
Study End Date: Posted Sept 25, 2017. No end date.


Vision and eye movements in baseball players and healthy controls
Researcher: Dr. Miriam Spering (PI)
Description: This study is about eye and hand movements. Eye movements are important because they help us see things better, and to move our hands more accurately. In this study, we will investigate the relation between eye and hand movements. Your participation may help us to learn more about the way we see the world, and the accuracy and constraints of our visual-motor system. If you choose to participate, you will look at moving visual stimuli on a computer screen, be asked to track them with your eyes, and to hit them with your finger, while we record eye and hand position.
Eligibility: You must be male, and between 19 and 25 years of age, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity (contact lenses are OK, but we cannot test subjects with eye glasses), and no history of neurological, psychiatric, or eye disease (this includes conditions such as “lazy eye”). Because this is a control experiment, we can only test you if you do not play ball sports or interceptive sports such as baseball, softball, tennis, table tennis, squash, basketball, soccer, frisbee, hockey, etc. on a regular basis. If you are in doubt whether you qualify, please contact us.
Location:
UBC campus, ICICS building (entrance on Agronomy Rd.), Rm X725
Contact Information: Rose Shannon by email (exp.nova.lab@gmail.com)
Reimbursement/Time: remuneration is $10 / session; duration will be one session of 60 minute duration maximum.
Study End Date: Posted Sept 7, 2017. No end date.


Effects of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation on Perception and Cognition
Researcher: Principal Investigator: Dr. Lawrence Ward
Description: The study’s aim is to better understand human perception and cognition, its underlying brain mechanisms, and how those can be influenced by light electrical stimulation of the brain through the scalp using a medically approved TDCS stimulator.
Eligibility: Fluent in English. No history of neurological disorders.
Location: The experiment will be conducted in the Laboratory of Psychophysics and Cognitive Neuroscience (Kenny Building, Room 3014)
Contact Information: Email Yana at wardlab@psych.ubc.ca to organize a time to participate.
Reimbursement/Time: The study will take part over 2 sessions a week apart from another, each session lasting 1 hour. Participants will receive $10.00 for each hour of participation at the end of the second session.
Study End Date: Posted Sept 6, 2017. No end date.


NEW TROXLER EEG EXPERIMENTS
Researcher: Nick Bedo, Principal Investigator: Dr. Lawrence Ward
Description: The specific experiment explores how people process visual stimuli. The experiment involves responding to visual stimuli presented on the computer screen. Our experiments require making recordings of brain activity during these tasks using EEG, which involves several sensors placed on your scalp and a couple on each temple, ears, and one above and below the right eye.
Eligibility: Fluent in English. Must be 18-35 years old. No visual disorders, but glasses and contacts are fine. Don’t remember if you participated in the study before? Email us for more info!
Location: The experiment will be conducted in the Laboratory of Psychophysics and Cognitive Neuroscience (Kenny Building, Room 3014)
Contact Information: Email Yana at wardlab@psych.ubc.ca to organize a time to participate. Note that this study will run on weekends.
Reimbursement/Time: Participants will receive $10.00 for each hour of participation. The study will take 2-4 hours to complete.
Study End Date: Posted Sept 6, 2017. No end date.


UBC Online Parenting Study
Researcher: Charlotte Johnston (PI); Kyle Dadgar (RA), Emma Ward-Griffin (RA)
Description: The study looks at child behaviour and parenting cognitions. Specifically, we are interested in how parents’ thoughts about their son’s behaviour are related to their parenting behaviour. The study includes two portions. The first portion involves filling out several questionnaires and completing two tasks on the computer, and the second portion is a phone interview on parenting and child behaviour.
Eligibility: Mothers of boys between the ages of 6-12 with attention/inhibition problems. Also must have normal or corrected-to-normal eyesight (glasses, contact lenses).
Location: Online and over the phone.
Contact Information: Contact Kyle or Emma at: cjlab@psych.ubc.ca or at: 604-822-9037 (toll-free at 1-866-558-5581)
Reimbursement/Time: Parents will be compensated $25 for 60-90 minutes (i.e., $15 for the 60 minutes of online questionnaires/tasks and $10 for 15-30 minute phone interview).
Study End Date: Posted July 21, 2017. No end date.


Interpersonal Relationships 2
Researcher: Marlise Hofer and Dr. Frances Chen
Description: Participants in romantic relationships will wear a white undershirt for 24 consecutive hours and track their sleep (using a sleep watch) for four nights. Both members of the couple must participate. Upon study completion, participants will be given information about their sleep quality as measured by the Actiwatch!
Eligibility: Seeking heterosexual couples who have been together for more than 3 months and live in the Vancouver area.
Location: Kenny building room 3318
Contact Information: chenlabstudy@gmail.com
Reimbursement/Time: Couples will recieve $60-$100 (compensation varies depending on study).
Study End Date: Posted July 17, 2017. No end date.


Interpersonal Relationships
Researcher: Marlise Hofer and Dr. Frances Chen
Description: Male participants will wear a white undershirt for 24 consecutive hours.
Eligibility: Participants must be male, and willing to avoid certian foods with strong odors (spicy food, garlic), smoking, and scented hygene products for 48 hours. Participants must also be able to sleep alone for the night the shirt is worn.
Location: Kenny building room 3318
Contact Information: chenlabstudy@gmail.com
Reimbursement/Time: $20
Study End Date: Posted July 17, 2017. No end date.


Subliminally Yours
Researcher: Yana Pertels (Project Leader/RA), Dr. Ronald Rensink (Primary Investigator)
Description: Learn more about subliminal perception! We are looking at how we can apply the principles of magic tricks to a combination of psychological experiments.
Eligibility: In order to participate in this study you must meet all of the following requirements: 1) You must be between the ages of 18 and 35. 2) You must have normal or corrected to normal (glasses, contacts) vision 3) You cannot have participated in any NOVA or Subliminally Yours studies before. 4) You cannot participate in this study more than once. 5) You must also bring a physical photo ID (ie. student ID, driver’s license, passport) ***For other general guidelines and policies, please visit http://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/
Location: Kenny Building, Room 3204; Visual Cognition Lab (VCL)
Contact Information: If you are eligible to participate, please sign up through our VCL Reservax system https://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/member_exp_signup.php?id=1&page=2
Reimbursement/Time: Receive $10 for 1hr of participation
Study End Date: Posted June 29, 2017. No end date.


Line IT 1
Researcher: Wendy Chai (Project Leader/RA), Dr. Ronald Rensink (Primary Investigator)
Description: Are our visual systems smarter than we think? This study investigates whether changing the orientation of the display will affect the time it takes to find the target. Participants will perform visual search tasks on a computer.
Eligibility: In order to participate in this study you must meet all of the following requirements: 1) You must be between ages 18-35yrs 2) You must have normal to corrected to normal (glasses, contacts) vision 3) You cannot have participated in any SHIVA or Perceptual Modes experiment within the last 30 days. 4) You cannot participate in this study more than once. 5) You must also bring a physical photo ID (ie. student ID, driver’s license, passport) ***For other general guidelines and policies, please visit http://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/
Location: Kenny Building, Room 3204; Visual Cognition Lab (VCL)
Contact Information: If you are eligible to participate, please sign up through our VCL Reservax system http://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/member_exp_signup.php?id=4&page=2
Reimbursement/Time: Receive $10 for 1hr of participation
Study End Date: Posted June 29, 2017. No end date.


Perceptual Modes
Researcher: Sogol Ghattan (Project Leader/RA), Dr. Ronald Rensink (Primary Investigator)
Description: Does your mode of perception shift depending on what you look at? Come and see! We may be able to identify your perceptual mode by testing your performance on a computerized visual search task.
Eligibility: In order to participate in this study you must meet all of the following requirements: 1) You must be between ages and 18-35yrs 2) You must have normal to corrected to normal (glasses, contacts) vision 3) You cannot have participated in SHIVA. 4) You cannot have participated in Perceptual Modes 2.0. 5) You cannot have participated in Line IT1. 6) You cannot participate in this study more than once. 7) You must also bring a physical photo ID (ie. student ID, driver’s license, passport) ***For other general guidelines and policies, please visit http://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/
Location: Kenny Building, Room 3204; Visual Cognition Lab (VCL)
Contact Information: If you are eligible to participate, please sign up through our VCL Reservax system https://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/member_exp_signup.php?id=33&page=2
Reimbursement/Time: Receive $10 for 1hr of participation.
Study End Date: Posted June 29, 2017. No end date.


Down the Highway
Researcher: Ti Wu (Project Leader/RA), Dr. Ronald Rensink (Primary Investigator)
Description: How well can you judge speed in your periphery? Show us in a 3d driving simulator displayed on a personal Omnimax theatre-like Elumens screen. Just sit back and enjoy the ride!
Eligibility: You must be between ages 18 and 30. You must have normal or corrected to normal (glasses, contacts) vision. You cannot run this experiment more than once every two weeks (14 days). You cannot run this experiment more than four times. We caution against signing up for this experiment if you suffer from motion sickness.
Location: Room x725 of the ICICS (Computer Science) building
Contact Information: If you are eligible to participate, please sign up through our VCL Reservax system:
https://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/member_exp_signup.php?id=18&page=2
Reimbursement/Time: Receive $10 for 1hr of participation
Study End Date: Posted June 29, 2017. No end date.


Ouija
Researcher: Gurveer Toor (Project Leader), Dr. Ronald Rensink (Primary Investigator)
Description: The ouija board, as a special kind of talking board, has long drawn attention from spiritualists and psychologists. Its power to move ‘by itself’ and give answers to questions is intriguing. The goal of our study is to understand the mechanism that underlies this phenomenon and to use it to access implicit cognition. In this experiment you will play Ouija with another participant under the supervision of an experimenter.
Eligibility: In order to participate in this study you must meet all of the following requirements: 1) You must be 19-35. Age 18 is acceptable if you are currently attending university. 2) You cannot participate in this study if you already signed up for, or participated in, “Motor coordination 1” or “Motor coordination 2” studies. 3) You cannot participate in this study more than once. 4) You must also bring a physical photo ID (ie. student ID, driver’s license, passport) ***For other general guidelines and policies, please visit http://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/
Location: Kenny Building, Room 3204; Visual Cognition Lab (VCL)
Contact Information: If you are eligible to participate, please sign up through our VCL Reservax system http://www.reservax.com/ubcviscog/member_exp_signup.php?id=4&page=2
Reimbursement/Time: Receive $10 for 60 minutes of participation
Study End Date: Posted June 29, 2017. No end date.


Identity Matters: A possible selves intervention for emerging adults
Researcher: The grad student(Zarina Giannone, MA, PhD Student and Megumi Iyar, BA, MA student) and the primary investigator David Kealy, PhD; Assistant Professor.
Description: The purpose of this study is to examine short-term group programs that focus on future possibilities among young adults. We want to know whether participating in these groups will enhance wellbeing. Therefore, we are inviting adults aged 18 – 25 to take part in these groups and in the research study.
Eligibility: If you are between the ages of 18 and 25; If you have a phone number where we can reach you; If you are able to travel to UBC (Point Grey Campus); If you have written and verbal proficiency in English
Contact Information: Please contact our research team at: planning.ahead1@gmail.com
Reimbursement/Time:  1. Pre-group assessment questionnaires; estimated time of 1 hour; $25 payment   2. Random allocation to one of two types of groups   3. Participate in series of group sessions: once per week for 4 weeks; time of 2 hours per week   4. Post-group assessment questionnaires; estimated time of 1 hour; $50 payment   5. Participate in a follow-up assessment; estimated time of 1 hour; $25 payment
Study End Date: Posted June 14, 2017. No end date.


 The effects of age, noise exposure, and tinnitus/hyperacusis on auditory processing
Researcher: Ainsley Ma, Charlene Chang, Dr. Navid Shahnaz
Description: This research seeks to improve the accuracy of diagnostic norms for elderly individuals or individuals with a history of noise exposure. Participants will undergo a variety of audiological tests that involve pressing buttons in response to sounds, giving verbal responses to prompts, and having a probe in their ears.
Eligibility: Adults aged 18-80 who have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments, have tinnitus and/or hyperacusis (oversensitivity to sound), but with otherwise normal hearing.
Location: Middle Ear Lab (Room B28) located in the basement of the Woodward IRC building on UBC campus
Contact Information: Please email the Middle Ear Lab at mel@audiospeech.ubc.ca
Reimbursement/Time: Participants will receive a $10 honorarium for 1.5-2 hours of their time as well as learn more about their hearing.
Study End Date: Posted June 14, 2017. No end date.


Visual Language Study
Researcher: Dr. Bryan Gick (PI), Dr. Murray Schellenberg, Megan Keough, and Charlene Chang
Description: This study is about visual language perception. Participants will watch videos of a speaker and identify the sounds the person on the video is saying. Participants will also be recorded reading various words. You will be asked to fill out a short questionnaire about your language background and hearing history.
Eligibility: Individuals who are diagnosed with hearing loss from birth or early childhood, and communicate primarily in spoken English.
Location: Interdisciplinary Speech Research Lab, Room 4 of Stores Road Annex (6368 Stores Road, between Main Mall and West Mall).
Contact Information: Please contact Charlene at charlene.chang@alumni.ubc.ca.
Reimbursement/Time: The study will take between 30 minutes to 1 hour. Participants will be compensated $10.
Study End Date: Posted May 20, 2017. No end date.


EYES-study
Researcher: Dr. Lori Brotto and Dr. Julia Velten
Description: We are investigating how women with and without sexual concerns respond to erotic pictures and videos. Women will take part in a phone interview, one in-laboratory testing session at our clinic and will complete questionnaires.
Eligibility: Pre-menopausal woman over the age of 19, experiencing low sexual desire or genital pain with sexual activity, normal or corrected-to-normal vision, not have any eye diseases, not pregnant or breastfeeding, identify as heterosexual, not experiencing a major mental disorder that might interfere with sexual response or the study procedures, not taking any medication that might interfere with sexual response (e.g., antidepressants, hormonal contraceptives), able to read, write, and speak English
Location: 2775 Laurel Street (Diamond Health Care Centre near VGH)
Contact Information: yvonne.erskine@vch.ca
Reimbursement/Time: $ 20, 1.75 hours
Study End Date: Revised May 11, 2017. No end date.


“Away We Grow” Toddler Development Study
Researcher: Dr. Yvonne Lamers and Dr. Tim Oberlander
Description: Nutrition researchers at the Child & Family Research Institute at BC Children’s Hospital recently launched “Away We Grow! Toddler Development Study” to learn more about the nutrition needs of young children. This study looks at three specific nutrients: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), lutein, and choline. Important to a young child’s development, these nutrients are found in few foods. Choline is present in cow’s milk, DHA is primarily in fish, and lutein is in dark green and red vegetables. Babies and toddlers who are breastfeeding can get some amount of these nutrients through human milk. The research team will be following three groups of toddlers from 18-24 months of age. One group will drink cows’ milk in controlled amounts, one group will continue with their usual drinks, and one group will consume either a standard or modified toddler drink, called Growing Up Milk (GUM). This six month study involves:  • 3-4 visits at BC Children’s Hospital  • Collecting information on your child’s growth, development, and diet  • Collecting a small blood sample from your child at the first and last study visit
Eligibility: You may be eligible to participate if:  • You are the parent of a child nearing 18 months old  • Your child is in good health and was born full-term (at least 37 weeks gestation)
Location:BC Children’s Hospital Research Institute
Contact Information: If you want more information, have a question or are interested on participating, please email us at nutrition.research@ubc.ca, or give us a call: 604-875-2345 ext. 4896
Reimbursement/Time: Gift cards are provided at the end of study visits in recognition of the time and help provided. All visits are around 1.5-2h long.
Study End Date: Posted March 14, 2017. No end date.


Exposure History Impact on Identification of Faces and Objects
Researcher: Fakhri Shafai (Phd student) and Dr. Ipek Oruc (PI)
Description: We are interested in how people identify faces and objects in relation to childhood exposure. Participants will be asked to fill out a questionnaire to describe background exposure to various faces and objects. Participants will use a keyboard in order to respond to face or object stimuli on a computer screen.
Eligibility: You must be between the ages 18 and 50. You must have normal, or corrected to normal (glasses/contacts) vision.
Location: Our lab is located in the ICORD Centre of Vancouver General Hospital (818 West 10th Ave).
Contact Information: Please contact seyed.mousavi@alumni.ubc.ca to schedule a time to participate.
Reimbursement/Time: This study takes roughly 3 hours to complete, with 3 one-hour sessions conducted on different days, and pays $10/hour (approximately $30 total).
Study End Date: Renewed Nov 4, 2016. No end date.


You Had Mail
Researcher: Co-investigator: Caitlin Kopperson (Counselling Psychology MA student) and Principal Investigator: Dr. Rhea Owens (Assistant Professor, ECPS)
Description: The study examines self-reflection, email communication, and psychological health. Participation will involve answering some questionnaires about how you are feeling and reflecting on a memory of a past relationship experience.
Eligibility: Individuals age 18 or older, self-identifying as frequent email users
Location: Neville Scarfe Building Library Block, UBC Vancouver Campus
Contact Information: Caitlin Kopperson, caitlin.kopperson@alumni.ubc.ca
Reimbursement/Time: $10.00 Starbucks gift card will be provided to each participant. The study involves approximately 1 hour in a lab session and 1/2 hour follow-up survey sent via email two weeks after the lab session.
Study End Date: Posted Oct 31, 2016. No end date.


A study on the role of narratives in developing information systems design diagrams
Researcher: Xueqi Xu, Veda Storey and Carson Woo Study facilitator: Katie Chang (cc’d)
Description: In this study, subjects will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (Groups A, B or C), and then asked to read a two-page business case of an auto-dealership and some additional materials. Group A will be given one page of narratives related to the case. Group B will be given one page of user stories related to the case. Group C will be given both.
Eligibility: Students who are taking or have taken CPSC 304, and/or have sufficient knowledge with UML Class and Sequence Diagram
Location: UBC Sauder building, MIS Lab (HA 041)
Contact Information: Katie Chang katiechang09@gmail.com
Reimbursement/Time: $40, two hours
Study End Date: Posted Oct 21, 2016. No end date.


Join the Mailing List

If you would like to receive regular emails listing the paid surveys available at UBC, join the paid participant studies mailing list! Emails are typically sent out on a weekly or bi-weekly basis (depending on whether there are new studies available).

To join the list, please sign up at http://www.tinyletter.com/PaidParticipants. You may unsubscribe yourself at any time.


Advertise on the List

If you have paid studies you want listed on the mailing list/listserv, please send an email to Kim at kmeier@psych.ubc.ca with the following information. Please send your listing plain-text in an email (no attachments) and put “Paid study posting” in the email subject to ensure your email does not get lost.

Study Title: A unique title used to identify your study
Researcher: The grad student(s) and the primary investigator
Description: A few sentences or a short paragraph about what participants will do. You can use the Human Subjects Pool style as a guide.
Eligibility: Any restrictions, such as if you only want students, psych majors, a certain age, etc.
Location: Where the participant will take part in the study (e.g., Kenny building, UBC campus, Vancouver General Hospital, online). Please note that not all readers of the list are UBC students, and so if your location is a building on campus, we recommend you include a street address so participants can look up the location of the building.
Contact Information: A name, email address/phone number so participants can organize a time to participate
Reimbursement/Time: What participants will be paid and how long will the study take
Study End Date: When the study will be removed from the list. Studies labelled ongoing will remain on the list for one year or until you contact Kim to remove them.

Please note: This list is a posting service only. All studies affiliated with UBC involving human participants are required to have a research ethics certificate before using this service and the use of this site needs to be specifically outlined in the research ethics application. It is the responsibility of the researcher to ensure proper ethics guidelines are being followed in using this list as an advertising space. For information on UBC Research Ethics, consult the Office of Research Ethics website. This list is hosted online by, but not affiliated with, the Psychology Graduate Student Council.